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Over 32 Million Servings Sold ...and Counting
AloeCran™ is delivered to your home as a ready to mix powder chock full of nutrients with a wide variety of potential health benefits. You simply add 6oz to 8oz of water (depending on your taste preference) to a scoop of powder, and in a snap you have a great tasting drink.
AloeCran™ doesn’t contain sugar, artificial sweeteners or preservatives that ruin the health benefits of the drink mix. In spite of this, you don’t sacrifice great taste - you just lose the calories and spike in blood sugar.
AloeCran™ contains the organic ACTIValoe® made with the revolutionary Qmatrix™ dehydration process. This delivers powder from the inner gel of the Aloe plant that is still “farm fresh.”? ACTIValoe® has been used in more clinical studies than any other brand of aloe - showing benefits for cholesterol, blood sugar and immune system health, improving nutrient absorption and digestion, providing prebiotic activity and supporting antioxidant levels.
PACran® is made from the whole cranberry - the juice, flesh, skin and seeds. PACran® has been shown to support urinary tract and prostate health. In fact, PACran® was the first cranberry ingredient in the world to receive a government approved claim for urinary tract health. Cranberrries also have been shown to promote heart health and immune system function.
Each serving of AloeCran™ provides 5 grams of soluble fiber from Fibersol®-2. Since only about 50% of Fibersol®-2 ferments in the intestines, it’s much less likely to cause gas or bloating than other fiber products. In over 100 clinical studies and research papers, Fibersol®-2 has been shown to improve elimination and regularity, maintain healthy cholesterol and triglyceride levels and help control the post meal spike in blood sugar. What’s more, Fibersol®-2 promotes satiety by prolonging stomach emptying time and acts as a prebiotic - helping beneficial bacteria flourish in the gut.
ACTIValoe®: Getting the Most Out of the Inner Gel of the Aloe plant
We chose ACTIValoe® for AloeCran™ because it’s made with a breakthrough dehydration technology - called Qmatrix™ - that sets a new standard for Aloe vera quality.
Qmatrix™ removes water from a fresh Aloe leaf using a low temperature/short time (LTST) method that protects heat sensitive Aloe nutrients.
Here’s the ACTIValoe® bottom line: when you add water to make a glass of AloeCran™, the Aloe vera will still be “farm fresh” - as pure and potent as if you freshly squeezed the juice from an Aloe leaf.
And ACTIValoe® is 100% organic - from start to finish absolutely no chemicals, pesticides or preservatives are used. There’s a reason why ACTIValoe® has been used in more clinical studies than any other Aloe vera ingredient - it’s simply “best in class.”
Each serving of ACTIValoe® is guaranteed to provide a minimum of 10% polysaccharides - the most important nutrients in Aloe vera.
What’s more, ACTIValoe® is certified for content and purity by the International Aloe Science Council (IASC).
On top of this, ACTIValoe® made with Qmatrix™, is the first and only Aloe vera ingredient to achieve GRAS status with the FDA as a food ingredient. ACTIValoe® was the subject of extensive safety studies conducted over two years that provided scientific support for the FDA.
So regardless of what health benefits you seek from Aloe vera - digestion and intestinal health, blood sugar control, or heart health - the presence of Qmatrix™ ACTIValoe® in AloeCran™ provides superior potency.
PACran®: Provides the Goodnes Found in WHOLE Cranberry
Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are the phytonutrients believed to be mainly responsible for many of the health benefits associated with cranberries. Science has shown that cranberries contain unique A-type PACs, seldom found elsewhere in nature, that help promote urinary tract, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular health.
This led many other companies to isolate PACs and sell ingredients with high PAC concentrations - the thought being more must be better.
However, recent research has found that to maximize benefits from cranberry fruit, it’s best to get the nutrients from the entire cranberry - as nature made it - not just PAC fractions.
That’s why AloeCran™ contains the world’s premier whole cranberry ingredient named PACran® (pronounced “pack cran”).
PACran® is an all natural, 100% cranberry fruit ingredient. With PACran®, you get every part of the cranberry - the juice, flesh, skin and seeds.
Better yet, PACran®’s benefits have been demonstrated in multiple clinical studies conducted in the U.S and internationally.
One of the keys to PACran®’s potency is the type of cranberries used - which are the rare “Early Black” cranberries. In fact, these berries are harvested from cranberry bogs in Massachusetts that are over 100 years old.
Early Blacks are used because they’re the most potent cranberries around - and are the reason why PACran® contains 1.5% PACs, which is twice as much as other whole cranberry powders.
It’s also noteworthy that PACran® contains the first cranberry ingredient in the world to receive a government approved claim for urinary tract health.
Fibersol®-2: Helping to “Bridge” Your Daily Fiber Gap
A recent survey by the International Food Information Council found that 72% of Americans are trying to consume more fiber each day.
And for good reason - we don’t get close to what we need! Here is the simple math on fiber:
Both the USDA and the Institute of Medicine advise that adults get 14 grams of fiber for every 1,000 calories consumed. So if you eat the typical 2,000 calories each day, you should get 28 grams of fiber.
How much fiber does the aver-age American get?
Only about 12g to 16g - we struggle to get HALF of what is needed.
And in case you don’t know, fiber is needed to i) manage cholesterol and triglyceride levels, ii) keep blood sugar in a good range, iii) improve intestinal health and elimination, iv) keep weight and fat under control and v) boost immune health.
Before you choose a supplement, you should know about a couple of the problems with the fiber in many supplements.
For starters, there is the taste. Most fibers taste really bad - so you definitely don’t look forward to eating or drinking them.
Worse is the extra gas and acid release that can cause you needless discomfort and bloating. This happens because almost 100% of these fiber ingredients ferment in the intestines.
We considered these concerns and choose to use Fibersol®-2, a soluble dietary fiber, in AloeCran™.
One of the great features of FiberSol®-2 is that it’s odorless and tasteless. This is in contrast to other fiber supplements that often have a “chalky” or otherwise nasty taste.
Even better, only about 50% of FiberSol®-2 ferments in your large intestine (providing prebiotic activity) . So you don’t have to worry about Fibersol®-2 causing excess gas, bloating or releasing acid in your gut.
What’s more, Fibersol®-2 is a completely “clean” fiber. It is made from Iowa corn and is completely free of bacteria, GMO proteins, toxins and harmful pathogens. Using enzymes, the natural bonds between glucose molecules in corn starch are “strengthened” to withstand the digestion process - making Fibersol®-2 an indigestible carbohydrate, or dietary fiber.
The icing on the cake is there have been over 100 research papers and clinical studies published on Fibersol®-2 in the last two decades.
And this work has shown that Fibersol®-2 provides just about all of the health benefits you want from fiber as well demonstrating an impressive safety profile.
Dietary Supplement / Net Wt. 201 g (7.09 oz)
Serving Size: 1 Scoop (6.7 g)
Servings per Container: 30
|Amount Per Serving||% Daily Value|
|Total Carbohydrate||6 g||2%*|
|Dietary Fiber||5 g||20%*|
|ACTIValoe® aloe vera gel (from 200x concentrate)||200 mg||‡|
|PACran® whole cranberry fruit extract||250 mg||‡|
|Non-GMO Fibersol®-2 (resistant glucose polymers)||5 g||‡|
|Malic acid||200 mg||‡|
|Stevia Leaf extract||70 mg||‡|
|Luo han guo fruit extract||12 mg||‡|
*Percent daily values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. ‡ Daily value not established.
Other ingredients: beet root juice (color), natural flavors, silica, potasssium citrate, gum acacia.
Fibersol®-2 is a registered trademark of Matsutani America, Inc.
PACran® is a registered trademark of Decas Botanical Synergies, LLC.
ACTIValoe® is a trademark of Aloecorp, Inc.
Each refreshing scoop (scoop provided inside each jar) of AloeCran™ Powder Mix combines 200 mg of ACTIValoe® 200:1 aloe vera leaf gel concentrate, 250 mg of PACran®, which has a guaranteed high level of potent cranberry proanthocyanidins, and 5g of the patented fiber Fibersol®-2†.
SUGGESTED USE: As a dietary supplement, add one (1) scoop (filled to line) to 6 fl oz. to 8 fl oz. of cold water and mix well. Maximum benefits usually occur with sustained use.
Use AloeCran™ to help support healthy digestion, a healthy urinary tract and for overall health and well-being. Fibersol®-2 helps maintain normal, healthy levels of serum cholesterol, blood triglycerides and blood sugar. Enjoy as often as you would like to rejuvenate, refresh and invigorate from head to toe!†
Keep out of reach of children.
Store at 15-30° C (59-86° F).
Protect from heat, light and moisture.
Do not purchase if seal is broken.
†These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
- Gluten Free
- Assembled in the USA
Manufactured for and Distributed by: NatureCity®
Boca Raton, FL 33487 www.naturecity.com
To re-order call toll free 1-800-593-2563
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Other Aloe Vera
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Intestinal Regularity and Prebiotic Effect
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Ukhanova M, Culpepper T, Baer D, Gordon D, Kanahori S, Valentine J, Neu J, Sun Y, Wang X, Mai V. “Gut microbiota correlates with energy gain from dietary fibre and appears to be associated with acute and chronic intestinal diseases.” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 2012, 18(Suppl. 4), 62-66.
Fastinger ND, Karr-Lilienthal LK, Spears JK, Swanson KS, ZInn KE, Nava GM, Ohkuma K, Kanahori S, Gordon DT, Fahey GC. “A Novel Resistant Maltodextrin Alters Gastrointestinal Tolerance Factors, Fecal Characteristics, and Fecal Microbiota in Healthy Adult Humans.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 2008, 2, 356-366.
Pylkas AM, Juneja LR, Slavin JL. “Comparison of Different Fibers for In Vitro Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids by Intestinal Microflora.” Journal of Medicinal Food, 2005, 8(1), 113-116.
Furukawa T, Yonekawa S, Kurosawa M. “Effects Prepared Cocoa Powder Containing Indigestible Dextrin on Human Defecation.” Journal of the Japanese Council for Advanced Food Ingredients Research, 2004, 7 (1), 55-62.
Takagaki K, Ikeguchi M, Ariura Y, Fujinaga N, Ishibashi Y, Sugawa-Katayama Y. “The effect of AOJIRU drink powder containing indigestible dextrin on defecation frequency and fecal characteristics.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 2001, 4 (4), 29-35.
Unno T, Nagata K, Suzuki N, Yayabe F, Horiguchi T. “Effect of a vegetable drink supplemented with indigestible dextrin on defecation in females.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 2001, 4 (4), 21-27.
Yamamoto Y, Nishida T, Sone Y. “The effect of ingestion of beverage supplemented with indigestible dextrin on human defecation.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 2000, 3 (2), 29-36.
Sato M, Oishi Y, Ohmori T, Morimatsu F, Inage H, Watanabe I, Yamada R, Kimura S. “Effect of sausage containing indigestible dextrin on fecal amount and defecation frequency.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 2000, 3 (4), 55-62.
Sato M, Oishi Y, Ohmori T, Morimatsu F, Inage H, Watanabe I, Yamada R, Kimura S. “Effect of cooked and cured loin-roll ham containing indigestible dextrin on fecal amount and defecation frequency.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 2000, 3 (4), 47-54
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Ogiso H, Ito Y, Hayashi K. “Effects of Cookies Containing Indigestible Dextrin on Defecation and Fecal Condition in Human Subjects.” Journal of Japanese Association for Dietary Fiber Research, 1999, 3 (2), 79-83.
Umekawa T, Fujii K, Matuoka T. “Effect of drinks supplemented with indigestible-dextrin on fecal amount.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 1999, 2 (2), 52-57.
Inaki M, Fujii S, Iino H. “Effects of the administration of soft drink containing indigestible dextrin on defecation frequency and fecal characteristics of Japanese healthy female volunteers.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 1999, 2 (1), 44-51.
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Satouchi M, Wakabayashi S, Ohkuma K, Fujiwara K, Matsuoka A. “Effects of Indigestible Dextrine on Bowel Movements.” Japanese Journal of Nutrition, 1993, 51, 31-37.
Blood Sugar Metabolism
Kishimoto Y, Hayashi N, Yamada T, Yuba K, Yamamoto K. “Favorable Effect of Resistant Maltodextrin on Postprandial Blood Glucose, Insulin and Triglyceride Levels.” Japanese Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2009, 37, 277-283.
Livesey G, Tagami H. “Interventions to lower the glycemic response to carbohydrate foods with a low-viscosity fiber (resistant maltodextrin): meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2009, 89: 114-125.
Sonoki H. “Effects of Dietary Fiber Enriched Liquid Formula on Postprandial Glycemic Parameters.” ILSI Japan, 2008, 95, 10-17.
Unno T, Nagata K, Horiguchi T. “Effects of green tea supplemented with indigestible dextrin on postprandial levels of blood glucose and insulin in human subjects.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 2002, 5(2), 31-39.
Wolf BW, Wolever TMS, Bolognesi C, Zinker BA, Garleb KA .“Glycemic response to a rapidly digested starch is not affected by the addition of an indigestible dextrin in humans.” Nutrition Research, 2001, 21, 1099-1106.
Sakizaki K, Yonezawa H. “Efficacy of packed boiled rice containing indigestible dextrin on moderating the rise of postprandial blood glucose levels, and safety of long-term administration.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 2001, 4 (3), 81-88.
Maeda H, Yasuda K, Ohara I. “Effects of indigestible dextrin-containing soft drinks on postprandial blood glucose levels in healthy human subjects.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 2001, 4 (3), 73-79.
Shioda N, Shimizu M, Shimizu Y, Ono K, Sawanoi T, Morimatsu F, Uchikawa T, Yamanouchi T, Yamada R. “Effects of yogurt drink containing indigestible dextrin on postprandial blood glucose levels in Japanese healthy volunteers.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 2001, 4 (2), 7-18.
Mizushima N, Chiba Y, Katsuyama S, Kobayashi C. “Effect of long-term ingestion of indigestible dextrin-containing soft drinks on safety and blood glucose levels.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 2000, 3 (3), 75-82.
Wakabayashi S, Kishimoto Y, Nanbu S, Matsuoka A. “Effect of indigestible dextrin on postprandial rise in blood glucose levels in man.” Journal of Japanese Association for Dietary Fiber Research, 1999, 3 (1), 13-19.
Uno K, Takagi K, Akaza M, Takagi N, Yoshio N, Maeda I. “Effect of indigestible dextrin-containing tofu on blood glucose level in healthy human subjects.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 1999, 2 (4), 25-31.
Mizushima N, Chiba Y, Katsuyama S, Daigo Y, Kobayashi C. “Effect of indigestible dextrin-containing soft drinks on blood glucose level in healthy human subjects.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 1999, 2 (4), 17-23.
Shinohara H, Tsuji H, Seto A. “Effects of indigestible dextrin-containing green tea on blood glucose level in healthy human subjects.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 1999, 2 (1), 52-56.
Ueda Y, Wakabayashi S, Matsuoka A. “Effects of Indigestible Dextrin on Blood Glucose and Urine C-peptide Levels Following Sucrose Loading.” Journal of the Japanese Diabetes Society, 1993, 36,715-723.
Cholesterol and Triglycerides
Kobayashi Y, Kaneko Y, Katayama M, Itakura H. “Effect of Carbonated Beverage Containing Resistant Maltodextrin on postprandial Serum Triglyceride and the Safety Evaluation of Long-term or Excessive Intake of the Beverage.” Japanese Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2013, 41, 863-875.
Hashizume C, Kishimoto Y, Kanahori S, Yamamoto T, Okuma K, Yamamoto K. “Improvement Effect of Resistant Maltodextrin in Humans with Metabolic Syndrome by Continuous Administration.” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 2012, 58, 423-430.
Tanaka T, Nakamura J, Kitagawa Y, Shibata H, Sugimura H. “Effect of carbonated beverage containing resistant maltodextrin on postprandial serum triglyceride –A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.” Japanese Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 2011, 39, 813-821.
Suzuki M, Wakabayashi H, Yoshida A, Deuchi K, Shioya N, Itakura H. “Effect of Carbonated Beverage Containing Indigestible Dextrin on Postprandial serum Triglyceride.” Japanese Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2010, 38, 637-643.
Sato F, Saito A, Miyawaki H, Takehara I, Miyakoshi T, Takahashi N “Effect of Beverage Containing Resistant Maltodextrin on Postprandial Serum Triglyceride and the Safety Evaluation of Long-term or Excessive Intake of the Beverage.” Japanese Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 2009, 37, 857-866.
Hironaka T, Kishimoto Y, Matsubara H, Matsuoka Y. “Inhibitory Effect of Tea Containing Resistant Maltodextrin on the Elevation of Serum Triglyceride after Intake of Lipid.” Japanese Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2008, 36, 445-451.
Kishimoto Y, Yoshikawa Y, Miyazato S, Oga H, Ymada T, Tagami H, Hashizume C, Yamamoto K. “Effect of Resistant Maltodextrin on Digestion and Absorption of Lipids”
Journal of Health Science, 2009, 55(5), 838-844.
Kishimoto Y, Oga H, Tagami H, Okuma K, Gordon DT. “Suppressive effect of resistant maltodextrin on postprandial blood triacylglycerol elevation.” European Journal of Nutrition, 2007, 46, 133-138.
Gordon DT. “The effects of resistant maltodextrin on blood glucose, insulin and triacylglyceride levels, and fat accumulation after meal feeding in humans.” Dietary fibre components and functions, 2007, pp 305-322.
Okuma K and Kishimoto Y. “Effects of resistant maltodextrin on metabolism of glucose and lipids.” Dietary Fibre - bio-active carbohydrates for food and feed, J.W. van der Kamp et al. (Eds), Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 2004, pp 219-230.
Kajimoto O, Henmi M, Sano J, Tsuda R, Hatori M, Ohki K, Hirata H, Takahashi T, Tsuboi M, Hata Y. “Effects of a tea beverage containing indigestible dextrin on the serum triglyceride level in subjects with mild hypertriglyceridemia.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 2002, 5 (3), 117-130.
Kajimoto O, H Hirata, T Takahashi, M Henmi, F Morimoto, K Ohki “Beneficial effects of a new indigestible dextrin-containing beverage on lipid metabolism and obesity-related parameters.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 2000, 3 (3), 47-58.
Kishimoto Y, Wakabayashi S, Yuba K. “Effects of instant miso-soup containing indigestible dextrin on moderating the rise of postprandial blood glucose levels, and safety of long-term administration.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 2000, 3 (2), 19-27.
Kawasaki F, Matsuda M, Hiramatsu T, Hiroe K, Kawahara K, Moriya K, Kaku K “Efficacy of tea drink containing indigestible dextrin.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 2000, 3 (1), 65-72.
Tokunaga K, Matsuoka A. “Effects of a Food for Specified Health Use (FOSHU) which contains indigestible dextrin as an effective ingredient on glucose and lipid metabolism.” Journal of the Japanese Diabetes Society, 1999, 42, 61-65.
McCarron DA, Oparil S, Chait A, Haynes RB, Kris-Etherton P, Stern JS, Resnick LM, Clark S, Morris CD, Hatton DC, Metz JA, McMahon M, Holcomb S, Snyder GW, Pi-Sunyer FX. “Nutritional Management of Cardiovascular Risk Factors.” Archives of Internal Medicine 1997, 157 169-177.
Fujiwara K, Matsuoka A. “Continuous Administration Tests of Indigestible Dextrin II: Study on the effects of the improvement of fat metabolism in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.” Japanese Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1993, 83 (3) 301-305.
Matsuoka A, Saito M, Nagano S. “Continuous Administration Tests of Indigestible Dextrin I: Study on the effects of the improvement of fat metabolism in healthy volunteers.” Journal of the Japanese Diabetes Society,1992, 80 (2) 167-172.
Nomura M, Nakajima Y, Abe H. “Effects of Long-term Administration of Indigestible Dextrin as Soluble Dietary Fiber on Lipid and Glucose Metabolism.” Journal of Japan Society of Nutrition Food and Sciences, 1992 , 45 , 21-25.
Weight Management and Visceral Fat
Ye Z, Arumugam V, Haugabrooks E, Williamson P, Hendrich S. “Soluble dietary fiber (Fibersol-2) decreased hunger and increased satiety hormones in humans when ingested with a meal.” Nutrition Research. 2015 May;35(5):393-400.
Hendrich S, Ye Z, Arumugam V, Haugabrooks E, Williamson-Hughes P. “Fibersol-2 increases subjective and biochemical measures of satiety when ingested with a meal.” FASEB Journal. April 2010;24 (Meeting Abstract Supplement) 230.8.
Yamamoto T, Yamamoto K, Fukuhara Y, Fukui T, Kishimoto Y, Okuma K, Matsuoka Y, Isozaki K, Nagao K, Yamamoto T, Tokunaga K. “Effect of Indigestible Dextrin on Visceral Fat Accumulation” Journal of Japanese Society for the Study of Obesity, 2007, 13, 34-41.
Goda T, Kajiya Y, Suruga K, Tagami H, Livesey G, Kajiya Y, Suruga K, Tagami H, Livesey G. “Availability, fermentability, and energy value of resistant maltodextrin: modeling of short-term indirect calorimetric measurements in healthy adults.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2006, 83, 1321-1330.
Kishimoto Y, Wakabayashi S, Tokunaga K. “Effects of Long-term Administration of Indigestible Dextrin on Visceral Fat Accumulation.” Journal of Japanese Association for Dietary Fiber Research, 2000, 4 (2), 59-65.
Oku T, Nakamura S. “Evaluation of the relative available energy of several dietary fiber preparations using breath hydrogen evolution in healthy humans.” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 2014, 60, 246-254.
Kumashiro C, Kishimoto Y, Miyazato S, Hashimoto M, Yoshimura C and Nonomura M. “Evaluation of effectiveness of indigestible dextrin on female university students suspected to have anemia.” The Journal of Japan Mibyou System Association, Vol. 16 (2), 2010, 404-406.
Miyazato S, Nakagawa C, Kishimoto Y, Tagami H, Hara H. “Promotive effects of resistant maltodextrin on apparent absorption of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc in rats.” European Journal of Nutrition, 2010, 49, 165-171.
Kajimoto O, Yoshimura C, Morimoto F, Henmi M, Ohki K, Takahashi T, Takeuchi H. “Safety of a long-term intake of a tea beverage containing indigestible dextrin.” Journal of Nutritional Food, 2001, 4 (2), 19-26.
Okuma K, Matsuda I. “Production of Indigestible Dextrin from Pyrodextrin.” Journal of Applied Glycoscience, 2003, 50, 389-394.
Okuma K, Matsuda I, Katta Y, Hanno Y. “Pyrolysis of Starch and Its Digestibility by Enzymes - Characterization of Indigestible Dextrin.” Journal of the Japanese Society of Starch, 1990, 37, 107-114.
Okuma K, Matsuda I. “Indigestible Fractions of Starch Hydrolysates and Their Determination Method.” Journal of Applied Glycoscience, 2002, 49 (4), 479-485.
Ohkuma K, Wakabayashi S. “Fibersol-2: a soluble, non-digestible, starch-derived dietary fiber,” in Advanced Dietary Fibre Technology, B. V. McCleary and L. Prosky, Eds., pp. 509–523, Iowa State University Press, Blackwell Science, Ames, Iowa, USA, 2001.
Okuma K, Wakabayashi S. “Fibersol-2: a Soluble, Non-digestible, Starch-derived Dietary Fibre.” Advanced Dietary Fibre Technology, B.V. McCleary & L. Prosky (Eds), Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, 2001, pp 509-523.