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Boost Alertness and Feel Less Stress Today -
and Protect Your Memory for Tomorrow
For almost 3,000 years, Ayurvedic medical practitioners in India have used a native plant to improve “memory and intelligence”. This plant is bacopa monnieri.
Modern science is validating the instincts of those ancient Indian practitioners in clinical studies. In TrueRecall™, we include the brand of bacopa with the most clinical studies - Synapsa®.
Synapsa® is a mulitpatented bacopa ingredient developed based on 30 years of research. In seven clinical studies, Synapsa® has been shown to promote improved cognitive function when taking the amount in a single serving of TrueRecall™ for several months.
In addition, when taking the amount found in two servings of TrueRecall™, Synapsa® has been shown to increase alertness and boost mood after just one hour.
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is known as the “calming neurotransmitter” because it helps your brain relax during stressful situations so you can better focus and concentrate.
Most GABA used in supplements is synthetic - which doesn’t work as well as natural GABA. The premier natural GABA ingredient is PharmaGABA® - which is made using the same fermentation process used to make the Korean food kimchi.
In numerous clinical studies, PharmaGABA® has been shown to improve performance and concentration during stressful situations - and the effects can typically be felt after just 30 minutes.
Sensoril® is a patented extract of the ashwagandha plant and has been shown to help maintain normal levels of the “stress hormone”, cortisol resulting in better concentration levels, reduced forgetfulness, better energy levels and less symptoms of everyday stress.
Quatrefolic® is a highly stable form of active folate and already in the 5-methylfolate form your body uses - no conversion is necessary. This makes Quatrefolic® up to seven times more efficient than the folic acid found in most supplements.
Similarly, TrueRecall™ contains the active forms of vitamins B12 and B6.
Synapsa®: Shown to Boost Cognitive Function in 7 Studies
For almost 3,000 years, Ayurvedic medical practitioners in India have used a native plant to improve “memory and intelligence.” This plant is bacopa monnieri.
Modern science is showing those ancient Indian practitioners were spot on - bacopa may indeed offer you a treasure chest of brain benefits. But to get those benefits you need high quality bacopa and you need to get the right amount each day.
That’s why for TrueRecall™ we included the brand of bacopa with the most clinical studies which is Synapsa®.
Synapsa® is a mulit-patented bacopa ingredient developed based on 30 years of research. With Synapsa®, quality is everything - and it is controlled from “seed to shelf”, meaning from planting in India through final storage.
As important, Synapsa® has been shown to offer a wide variety of brain performance benefits in seven clinical studies - with more on the way. In fact, the Synapsa® studies show it offers both longer term and “acute” (after 1 hour) benefits.
The standard serving of Synapsa® for longer term benefits is 320mg (one serving or two TrueRecall™ capsules). On days where you really need to focus, taking Synapsa® (two servings or four TrueRecall™ capsules) has been shown to make a significant difference.
Some of the potential benefits found in the Synapsa® clinical studies include:
PharmaGABA®: Feel the Difference in Just 30 Minutes
One of the reasons you may struggle to think clearly and remember things is your brain can’t relax because it is stressed.
Stress occurs for lots of reasons - hectic schedules, fears about your health or family, being in a situation that makes you nervous or anxious, feeling tired, pressure at work or worries about money. Even exercise, a good thing, stresses your body.
This makes it hard to focus, relax and concentrate - all hurting your memory. Your body has a natural way to remedy this situation. It uses an amino acid called GABA (Gamma AminoButyric Acid).
GABA works to restore order so your brain can relax and you can focus and concentrate. It’s been called nature’s “calming neurotransmitter” because it inhibits transmission of nervous feelings caused by stress and anxiety.
Your body can make GABA if it has the basic building block available, which is the amino acid L-glutamine.
If you want to get GABA directly from food, then you can drink tea or eat fermented foods - such as yogurt and certain cheeses. The fermented Korean cabbage dish kimchi is also very high in GABA.
Since it’s not easy to get from food, for many people taking a supplement with GABA is a good idea. Until recently, the only GABA available for supplements was a synthetic chemically made GABA. And it just doesn’t work nearly as well as natural GABA.
This challenge was solved with the introduction of natural PharmaGABA® - which comes from Japan and is made using the same fermentation process used to make Korean kimchi. Since your body recognizes the natural PharmaGABA®, it can put it to work almost immediately.
In clinical studies, PharmaGABA® has been shown to help within 30 minutes of taking it - in both adults and children.
In fact, one of the first studies involved fifth grade students - and those taking PharmaGABA® before a math test significantly improved their scores.
In addition to analyzing test scores, the researchers collected saliva samples before, during and after the test. The saliva samples confirmed that those taking the PharmaGABA® were more relaxed because they secreted less of a stress marker called CgA.
Another study of adults aged 26 to 33 compared taking PharmaGABA® to a caffeinated energy drink. Many folks think that the way to feel more alert and focused is to drink a caffeinated beverage. But in this study, those taking PhamaGABA® outperformed those taking the energy drink by 25% in a video shooting game (an indication of focus and concentration).
PharmaGABA® works by promoting relaxing “alpha waves” in your brain while at the same time deceasing the anxiety causing “beta waves.” Whereas caffeine may help you feel awake, PharmaGABA® has been shown to make your brain more alert.
PharmaGABA®’s “relaxation response” has been shown to help in many other ways:
TrueRecall™ contains 100mg of PharmaGABA® per serving, the same amount used in most of the clinical studies.
Sensoril®: Helps Protect Your Body from The Effects of Stress
Like many substances in your body, when you have normal levels of cortisol it does some very good things. Some of these include helping to keep blood sugar under control, improving memory and reducing your sensitivity to pain.
Cortisol gets released when your body encounters a stressful situation - hence why it’s called the “stress hormone.” And because we live in a stressful society, many people have elevated levels of cortisol - which over time can lead to negative health consequences.
High cortisol levels may accelerate the aging process and cause you to feel tired, make it harder for your brain to function, lower immune system function, is a reason for weight gain and even accelerates bone loss.
To help promote normal cortisol levels, TrueRecall™ includes an ashwaganda plant extract called Sensoril®.
Sensoril® was invented by Fulbright Scholar Dr. Shibnath Ghosal - and it has been clinically shown to help keep cortisol in balance.
The ashwaganda plant used to make Sensoril® is known as an “adapatogen” - meaning it helps the body return to a balanced state. So if your cortisol levels are normal, Sensoril® doesn’t cause them to plummet to below normal. It’s there to help keep cortisol in balance and boost levels of energizing DHEA.
The benefits of Sensoril® have been demonstrated in 11 clinical studies involving human beings. These include reducing stress, boosting energy, promoting joint health, improving mental acuity and concentration and supporting normal cardiovascular function.
Quatrefolic®: “Active” Folate Your Body Can Put to Work
The vitamin B9 is commonly known as folate. This vitamin is found in dark green leafy vegetables or “foliage”- which led to the name folate.
As you may know, folate is not typically found in supplements or fortified foods. Instead, most companies use a man made synthetic form of B9 called folic acid.
For folic acid to be useful, your body needs to convert it to the active form of folate called 5-methylfolate (5-MTHF). And that brings us to the first problem with folic acid - up to 50% of Americans can’t make this conversion because we’re not genetically programmed to do so.
If you have this problem, folic acid does not help regulate homocysteine and worse, the folic acid may accumulate in your body. This can lead to other health problems or increase free radical damage.
Second, even if this conversion is not a problem for you, the synthetic folic acid can’t cross your “blood brain" barrier which means your brain can’t optimally use folic acid.
Third, another shortcoming of folic acid is it may mask a vitamin B12 deficiency. This can put you at greater risk for conditions like anemia or nerve damage.
So why do most supplement companies use folic acid? The short answer is because it’s dirt cheap. Using real active folate is a lot more expensive because it’s hard to keep stable in a supplement bottle or food product.
You won’t find folic acid in TrueRecall™. Instead you get enhanced 5-methylfolate, the active form of folate your body uses. The brand name of this ingredient - which is made in Italy - is Quatrefolic®.
Here are the benefits of Quatrefolic® compared to folic acid:
On top of this Quatrefolic® is a highly stable form of active folate - so it will not turn rancid in the bottle.
Dietary Supplement / 60 Capsules
Serving Size: 2 Capsules
Servings per Container: 30
|Amount Per Serving||% Daily Value|
|Vitamin B6 (as pyridoxal-5-phosphate)||5 mg||250%|
|Folate [as (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, glucosamine salt (Quatrefolic®)]||400 mcg||100%|
|Vitamin B12 (as methylcobalamin)||500 mcg||8,333%|
|Bacopa monnieri proprietary extract (aerial parts) (Synapsa®)||320 mg||*|
|Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) root and leaf extract (Sensoril®)||250 mg||*|
|Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (PharmaGABA®) from kimchi||100 mg||*|
* Daily value not established.
Other ingredients: Hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, vegetable magnesium stearate and silica.
Directions: Take two (2) capsules daily.
TrueRecallT helps support better memory, concentration and alertness.†
Keep out of reach of children.
Store at 15-30° C (59-86° F).
Protect from heat, light and moisture.
Do not purchase if seal is broken.
Quatrefolic® is a registered trademark of Gnosis Spa / Synapsa® is a trademark of Soho Flordis International Pty Ltd., exclusively licensed in the United States to PLT Health Solutions, Inc. / Sensoril® is a trademark of Natreon, Inc. and is protected under US Patents #6,153,198 & 7,318,938 / PharmaGABA® is a trademark of Pharma Foods International Co., Ltd.
†These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
- Assembled in the USA
Manufactured for and Distributed by: NatureCity®
Boca Raton, FL 33487 www.naturecity.com
To re-order call toll free 1-800-593-2563
Synapsa (Bacopa Monnieri)
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Downey et al. “An Acute, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study of 320 mg and 640 mg Doses of a Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on Sustained Cognitive Performance.” Phytotherapy Research 2012; 27:1407-1413.
Stough et al. “Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera on human cognitive functioning.” Phytotherapy Research, 2008; 22:1629-1634.
Raghav et al. “Randomized controlled trial of standardized Bacopa monniera extract in age-associated memory impairment.” Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 2006; 48:238-242.
Roodenrys S, Booth D, Bulzomi S, Phipps A, Micallef C, Smoker J. “Chronic effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) on human memory.” Neuropsychopharmacology.. 2002 Aug;27(2):279-81.
Stough et al. “The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera on cognitive function in healthy human subjects.” Psychopharmacology, 2001; 156:481-484.
Nathan et al. “The acute effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy normal subjects.” Human Psychopharmacology, 2001; 16:345-351.
Other Bacopa Monnieri
Kongkeaw C, Dilokthornsakul P, Thanarangsarit P, Limpeanchob N, Norman Scholfield C. “Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on cognitive effects of Bacopa monnieri extract.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2014;151(1):528-35.
Aguiar S, Borowski T. “Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri.” Rejuvenation Research. 2013 Aug;16(4):313-26.
Rauf K, Subhan F, Al-Othman AM, Khan I, Zarrelli A, Shah MR. “Preclinical profile of bacopasides from Bacopa monnieri (BM) as an emerging class of therapeutics for management of chronic pains.” Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2013;20(8):1028-37.
Pase MP, Kean J, Sarris J, Neale C, Scholey AB, Stough C. “The cognitive-enhancing effects of Bacopa monnieri: a systematic review of randomized, controlled human clinical trials.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2012 Jul;18(7):647-52.
Shinomol GK, Muralidhara, Bharath MM. “Exploring the role of "Brahmi" (Bocopa monnieri and Centella asiatica) in brain function and therapy.” Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov. 2011 Jan;5(1):33-49.
Mandal AK, Hedge S, Patki PS. “A clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Bacopa caplets in memory and learning ability: A double blind placebo controlled study.” Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism 2011 23: 122–125.
Morgan A, Stevens J. “Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2010 Jul;16(7):753-9.
Usha P, Wasim P, Joshua J, Geetharani P, Murali B, Mayachari A, Venkateshwarlu K, Saxena V, Deepak M, Amit A. “BacoMind®: A Cognitive Enhancer in Children Requiring Individual Education Programme.” Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2008,3: 302-310.
Barbhaiya C, Rajeshwari P, Vinod, Pravina K, Wasim P, Geetharani, P Joshua J, Venkateshwarlu K, Amit. “Efficacy and Tolerability of BacoMind®on Memory Improvement in Elderly Participants - A Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study.” Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2008. 3: 425-434.
Calabrese C, Gregory WL, Leo M, Kraemer D, Bone K, Oken B. “Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2008 Jul;14(6):707-13.
Pravina K, Ravindra KR, Goudar KS, Vinod DR, Joshua AJ, Wasim P, Venkateshwarlu K, Saxena VS, Amit A. “Safety evaluation of BacoMind in healthy volunteers: a phase I study.” Phytomedicine. 2007 May;14(5):301-8.
PharmaGABA® (Gamma AminoButyric Acid)
Yamatsu A, Yamashita Y, Maru I, Yang J, Tatsuzaki J, Kim M. “The Improvement of Sleep by Oral Intake of GABA and Apocynum venetum Leaf Extract.” J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2015; 61(2):182-7
Marina D, Joan Q, Magdalena R. “Gamma-aminobutyric acid as a bioactive compound in foods: a review”. Journal of Functional Foods. 2014, Vol.10, p.407.
Yamatsu A, Yamashita Y, Horie K, Takeshima K, Horie N, Masuda K, Yamane T, Kim M. “Beneficial action of GABA on sleep and frequent night urination in the elderly.” Jpn Pharmacol Ther 2013. 41:985–988.
Yoto A, Murao S, Motoki M, Yokoyama Y, Horie N, Takeshima K, Masuda K, Kim M, Yokogoshi H. “Oral intake of g-aminobutyric acid affects mood and activities of central nervous system during stressed condition induced by mental tasks.” Amino Acids 2012.43:1331–1337.
Kanehira T, Nakamura Y, Nakamura K, Horie K, Horie N, Furugori K, Sauchi Y, Yokogoshi H. “Relieving occupational fatigue by consumption of a beverage containing γ-amino butyric acid”. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2011;57(1):9-15.
Nakamura H, Takishima T, Kometani T, Yokogoshi H. “Psychological stress-reducing effect of chocolate enriched with g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in humans: assessment of stress using heart rate variability and salivary chromogranin A.” Int J Food Sci Nutr 2009.60 (Suppl 5): 106–113.
Fujibayashi M, Kamiya T, Takagaki K, Moritani T. “Activation of autonomic nervous system activity by the oral ingestion of GABA.” 2008. J Jpn Soc Nutr Food Sci 61:129–133.
Sauchi Y, Tanigawa R, Ohi Y. “Study Outline and Report based on the results of “Videogame Study with PharmaGABAÔ and Red BullÒ.” Pharma Foods International Co., Ltd. 28th Nov, 2007.
Abdou AM, Higashiguchi S, Horie K, Kim M, Hatta H, Yokogoshi H. “Relaxation and immunity enhancement effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration in humans.” Biofactors. 2006;26(3):201-8.
Nalini P, et al. “Evaluation of analgesic activity of standardized aqueous extract of Withania somnifera in healthy human volunteers using mechanical pain model.” Submitted for publication.
Rani PU, et al. “Evaluation of effect of Withania somnifera (Sensoril®) on cold pressor test induced cardiovascular changes in healthy human subjects.” Submitted for publication.
Pingali U, Fatima N, Kumar C, Kishan P. 2014. “Evaluation of a highly standardized Withania somnifera extract on endothelial dysfunction and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study.” International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research. 2014, May;2(3):22-32.
Pingali U, Pilli R, Fatima N. “Effect of standardized aqueous extract of Withania somniferaon tests of cognitive and psychomotor performance in healthy human participants.” Pharmacognosy Research. 2014 Jan;6(1):12-8.
Chengappa KN, Bowie CR, Schlicht PJ, Fleet D, Brar JS, Jindal R. “Randomized placebo-controlled adjunctive study of an extract of withania somnifera for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder.” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2013 Nov;74(11):1076-83.
Nalini P, Usharani P, Manjunath K, SunilKumarReddy K. “Evaluation of the analgesic activity of standardized aqueous extract of Withania somnifera in healthy human volunteers using Hot Air Pain Model.” Res J Life Sci.2013
Pingali U, Pilli R, Fatima N. “Effect of Withania somnifera extract on mental stress induced changes in hemodynamic properties and arterial wave reflections in healthy subjects.” Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research. 2013 11(4):151-158.
Kalani A, Bahtiyar G, Sacerdote A. “Ashwagandha root in the treatment of non-classical adrenal hyperplasia.” BMJ Case Rep. 2012 Sep 17;2012. pii: bcr2012006989.
Auddy B, Hazra J, Mitra A, Abedon B, Ghosal S. “A Standardized Withania Somnifera Extract Significantly Reduces Stress-Related Parameters in Chronically Stressed Humans: A Double-blind Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.” JANA. Vol II, No. I, 2008.
Chandrasekhar K, Kapoor J, Anishetty S. “A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of Ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults.” Indian J Psychol Med 2012;34:255-62
Sharma, V., Sharma, S., Pracheta., Paliwal, R., “W.somnifera rejuvenating ayurvedic medicinal herb for the treatment of various human ailments.” Int J of PharmTech Research. 2011 3(1): 187-192.
Mishra LC, Singh BB, Dagenais S. “Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): a review.” Alternative Medicine Review. 2000 Aug;5(4):334-46.
B Vitamins (B12, Folate, B6)
Petridou ET, Kousoulis AA, Michelakos T, Papathoma P, Dessypris N, Papadopoulos FC, Stefanadis C. “Folate and B12 serum levels in association with depression in the aged: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” Aging Ment Health. 2015 Jun 8:1-9.
Kim H, Kim G, Jang W, Kim SY, Chang N “Association between intake of B vitamins and cognitive function in elderly Koreans with cognitive impairment.” Nutr J. 2014 Dec 17;13(1):118.
Michelakos T, Kousoulis AA, Katsiardanis K, Dessypris N, Anastasiou A, Katsiardani KP, Kanavidis P, Stefanadis C, Papadopoulos FC, Petridou ET. “Serum folate and B12 levels in association with cognitive impairment among seniors: results from the VELESTINO study in Greece and meta-analysis.” Journal of Aging and Health. 2013 Jun;25(4):589-616.
Douaud G, Refsum H, de Jager C, Jacoby,R, Nichols T, Smith S, Smith D. “Preventing Alzheimer’s disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment.” PNAS. 2013 Jun 4; 110(23): 9523–9528.
Vogiatzoglou A, Smith AD, Nurk E, Drevon CA, Ueland PM, Vollset SE, Nygaard HA, Engedal K, Tell GS, Refsum H. “Cognitive function in an elderly population: interaction between vitamin B12 status, depression, and apolipoprotein E ε4: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study.” Psychosomatic Medicine. 2013 Jan;75(1):20-9.
Ng TP, Aung KC, Feng L, Scherer SC, Yap KB. “Homocysteine, folate, vitamin B-12, and physical function in older adults: cross-sectional findings from the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2012 Dec;96(6):1362-8.
Blasko I, Hinterberger M, Kemmler G, Jungwirth S, Krampla W, Leitha T, Heinz Tragl K, Fischer P. “Conversion from mild cognitive impairment to dementia: influence of folic acid and vitamin B12 use in the VITA cohort.” The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging. 2012 Aug;16(8):687-94.
Morris MS, Selhub J, Jacques PF. “Vitamin B-12 and folate status in relation to decline in scores on the mini-mental state examination in the framingham heart study.” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2012 Aug;60(8):1457-64.
de Jager C, Oulhaj A, Jacoby R, Refsum H, Smith D. “Cognitive and clinical outcomes of homocysteine-lowering B-vitamin treatment in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial.” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. Volume 27, Issue 6, pages 592–600, June 2012.
Moore E, Mander A, Ames D, Carne R, Sanders K, Watters D. “Cognitive impairment and vitamin B12: a review.” International Psychogeriatrics. 2012 Apr;24(4):541-56.
Walker JG, Batterham PJ, Mackinnon AJ, Jorm AF, Hickie I, Fenech M, Kljakovic M, Crisp D, Christensen H. “Oral folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplementation to prevent cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms--the Beyond Ageing Project: a randomized controlled trial.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2012 Jan;95(1):194-203.
Tangney CC, Aggarwal NT, Li H, Wilson RS, Decarli C, Evans DA, Morris MC. “Vitamin B12, cognition, and brain MRI measures: a cross-sectional examination.” Neurology. 2011 Sep 27;77(13):1276-82.
Kwok T, Lee J, Law CB, Pan PC, Yung CY. ”A randomized placebo controlled trial of homocysteine lowering to reduce cognitive decline in older demented people.” Clin Nutr. 2011;30:297–302.
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Smith AD, et al. Homocysteine-lowering by B vitamins slows the rate of accelerated brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment: A randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE. 2010;5(9):e12244.
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Skarupski KA, Tangney C, Li H, Ouyang B, Evans DA, Morris MC. “Longitudinal association of vitamin B-6, folate, and vitamin B-12 with depressive symptoms among older adults over time.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2010 Aug;92(2):330-5.
Vogiatzoglou A, Refsum H, Johnston C, Smith S, Bradley K, de Jager CBudge, M, Smith A. “Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly.” Neurology. September 9, 2008 vol. 71 no. 11 826-832.
Erickson KI, Suever BL, Prakash RS, Colcombe SJ, McAuley E, et al. “Greater intake of vitamins B6 and B12 spares gray matter in healthy elderly: A voxel-based morphometry study.” Brain Res. 2008;1199:20–26.
Durga J, et al. “Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: A randomised, double blind, controlled trial.” Lancet. 2007;369(9557):208–216.
Homocysteine Lowering Trialist Collaboration. “Dose-dependent effects of folic acid on blood concentrations of homocysteine: a meta-analysis of the randomized trials.” Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:806–812.
Lewerin C, Matousek M, Steen G, Johansson B, Steen B, Nilsson-Ehle H. “Significant correlations of plasma homocysteine and serum methylmalonic acid with movement and cognitive performance in elderly subjects but no improvement from short-term vitamin therapy: a placebo-controlled randomized study.” Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81:1155–1162.
Green R, Miller JW. “Vitamin B12 deficiency is the dominant nutritional cause of hyperhomocysteinemia in a folic acid-fortified population.” Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(10):1048–1051.
Seshadri S, et al. “Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease”. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(7):476–483.
Weir DG, Scott JM. “Brain function in the elderly: Role of vitamin B12 and folate.” Br Med Bull. 1999;55(3):669–682.
Clarke R, et al. “Folate, vitamin B12, and serum total homocysteine levels in confirmed Alzheimer disease.” Arch Neurol. 1998;55(11):1449–1455.