Three Cups of Coffee a Day Linked to Lower Risk of All-Cause Death
Coffee is one of the world’s most popular drinks, with over 400 billion cups consumed annually worldwide. A recent study suggests that three cups of coffee per day may be the optimal amount for lowering the risk of all-cause death.
Participants in the study included more than 520,000 people age 35 and older from 10 European Union countries. All of the participants completed questionnaires and took part in interviews in order to determine their dietary habits.
Denmark had the highest amount of daily coffee consumption at 30 ounces per day, while Italy had the lowest at 3 ounces. People who drank more coffee were found to be more likely to be younger, to smoke, to drink, and to eat more met and less fruits and vegetables.
During the 16-year follow-up period, 42,000 people died. After adjusting for lifestyle factors, the researchers found that people who drank the most coffee were at the lowest risk for all-causes of death, when compared with people who did not drink any coffee at all. Consuming three cups of coffee per day was associated with an 8% reduction in risk of death from circulatory diseases and an 18% lower risk of death from digestive-related conditions.
In women, drinking a lot of coffee was associated with a lower risk of death from circulatory disease and cerebrovascular disease. However, higher coffee consumtption was also associated with a higher risk of dying from ovarian cancer. Finally, a subset of 14,000 people showed a connection between higher coffee consumption and a healthier metabolic profile.
Researchers from the International Agency for Research on Cancer led the study. It was published online ahead of print on July 11, 2017, in the Annals of Internal Medicine.
The health benefits associated with coffee are generally attributed to its polyphenol content. Previous studies have linked polyphenol intake with a variety of health benefits, including helping with weight management, fighting certain cancers, and reducing inflammation.