Skip to content
Flat Rate Shipping Only $6.95 on Any Order Size - and Always FREE for Club Members
Flat Rate Shipping Only $6.95 on Any Order Size - and Always FREE for Club Members
Natto Japanese Food Fermented Beans

Vitamin K Deficiency Associated With Cardiovascular Mortality

Vascular calcification is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Vitamin K is critical for converting inactive Matrix GLA Protein into its active form, which inhibits calcification of arteries. Now a new study has found an association between low vitamin K levels and an increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease.


Participants in the study included 4,275 people between the ages of 41 and 65 who took part in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study. Of the total study population, 31% were vitamin K deficient. Vitamin K deficiency was more common (closer to 50%) in mature adults and people with comorbidities such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease.


Over the 10-year follow-up period, 279 of the participants died, with 74 deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease. After examining the data, the researchers found a signficant association between blood markers of vitamin K concentrations and death from cardiovascular causes.


Researchers from the University of Groningen in the Netherlands conducted the study. It was published on December 8, 2017, in the journal Nutrients.


Previous studies have linked vitamin K to bone and cardiovascular health, as well as a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Vitamin K comes in two main forms: K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinones). Vitamin K1 is found in green leafy vegetables and makes up approximately 90% of the vitamin K consumption in a western diet.


Vitamin K2 is harder to attain from food sources and therefore makes up only 10% of consumption. It is most common in fermented foods such as cheese and natto but can also be found in meat. Both vitamin K1 and K2 are also available in supplement form.

Previous article Low-Fat Vegan Diet May Be Better for Weight Loss Than Mediterranean Diet

Related Posts

Nitrate-Rich Beetroot Juice May Help Increase Beneficial Oral Bacteria
Nitrate-Rich Beetroot Juice May Help Increase Beneficial Oral Bacteria
Studies suggest that production of nitric oxide is reduced with aging an...
Read More
Cocoa Flavanols May Help Improve Vascular Function During Stress
Cocoa Flavanols May Help Improve Vascular Function During Stress
Previous research has suggested that mental stress may increase the risk...
Read More
Higher Dietary Intake of Nitrates May Help Improve Muscle Function
Higher Dietary Intake of Nitrates May Help Improve Muscle Function
Nitrates are compounds that contain nitrogen and oxygen and occur natura...
Read More

Join Us for Subscriber Only Offers, Product Announcements, and Health News You Can Use!

×